Merge all DEFUNCT Science-STEM websites into one!?

Merge all DEFUNCT Science/STEM websites into one!? –New Blog…for Marine Biology At Least?

Secret Link Uncovered Between Pure Math and Physics | Quanta Magazine

An eminent mathematician reveals that his advances in the study of millennia-old mathematical questions owe to concepts derived from physics.
— Read on

The rational numbers include the integers and any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers, such as 1, –4 and 99/100. Mathematicians are particularly interested in rational numbers that solve what are called “Diophantine equations” — polynomial equations with integer coefficients, like x2 + y2 = 1. These equations are named after Diophantus, who studied them in Alexandria in the third century A.D.

The U.S. MIGHT (remember few studies are replicable) have been 19th in the world in math (instead of 36th) if we’d bribed our students with $25

Here’s a puzzle:  if U.S. students do so badly on international tests, especially in math, how can it be that the U.S. economy is so strong? An educated workforce is supposedly a big predictor of a country’s income and annual growth. Yet the performance of American 15-year-olds on the Program for International Student Assessment, or PISA, has always been lackluster. Since 2012, U.S. math scores have slumped down into the bottom half. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains the top economy in the world this year with over $19 trillion of goods and services produced. No other country even comes close.

A group of behavioral economists wondered if U.S. students are actually not as incompetent as their scores would suggest, but simply lazy when they’re taking the PISA exam. To test this, they created a PISA-like exam of just 25 questions and asked 447 sophomores at two different high schools to take it. Seconds before the test started, they surprised half the students at each school with an envelope of 25 one-dollar bills. The researchers told those students they would take away one dollar for each incorrect or unanswered question.

Guess what? Scores rose for the American teens who were bribed. The economists estimated that if U.S. students had put this much effort into the real PISA test, they would have scored 22 to 24 points higher in math, moving the U.S. from 36th to 19th in the 2012 international rankings. (The U.S. ranked 39th in 2015.)

The researchers conducted the same experiment in Shanghai, China, where students had posted the highest scores in the world on the actual 2012 PISA test. However, the bribe (in renminbi instead of U.S. dollars) didn’t make a difference. The bribed Chinese students scored the same as those who weren’t bribed. They both got almost twice as many questions right as the incentivized American students. (Click here if you want to try the test yourself.)

“We’re by no means fully closing the gap,” said Sally Sadoff, a behavioral economist at the Rady School of Management at the University of California at San Diego and one of six authors of the study. “But the incentive is a tool to show that U.S. students aren’t really trying as hard as they could.”

“We’re not saying we should throw out PISA. But the gaps we see are not just about ability, but [about] some combination of ability and motivation,” Sadoff added.

The working paper, “Measuring Success in Education: The Role of Effort on the Test Itself,” was distributed by the National Bureau of Economic Research in November 2017.

There’s no reason for U.S. students to try their best on the PISA test. It won’t help them get into college. They don’t even get to see their individual scores afterward. But the scores often influence policymakers. Often, there’s a rush to copy the educational models of countries that rank at the top. Or there are policy debates inside a country when scores slide.

Source: The U.S. might have been 19th in the world in math (instead of 36th) if we’d bribed our students with $25 – The Hechinger Report

(Importance of “Early Learning Advantage™” in Science) Report: Science Knowledge Gaps in Kindergarten Harm Students’ Academic Futures – The Atlantic

When children start kindergarten, sizable gaps in science knowledge already exist between whites and minorities—as well as between youngsters from upper-income and low-income families. And those disparities often deepen into significant achievement gaps by the end of eighth grade if they aren’t addressed during elementary school. These are some of the findings in a new report by researchers from Pennsylvania State University and the University of California, Irvine.

The study, published this week in an American Educational Research Association journal, tracked 7,757 children from the start of kindergarten to the end of eighth grade, providing a rare glimpse into the state of science knowledge of America’s youngest students.

The findings suggest that, in order for the United States to maintain long-term scientific and economic competitiveness in the world, policymakers need to renew efforts to ensure access to high-quality, early learning experiences in childcare settings, pre-schools, and elementary schools. In other words, waiting to address science achievement gaps in middle or high school may be too late.

Source: Report: Science Knowledge Gaps in Kindergarten Harm Students’ Academic Futures – The Atlantic

Getting Started with MIT App Inventor 2 | for Android

Getting Started with MIT App Inventor 2 App Inventor is a cloud-based tool, which means that you can build apps right in your web browser. This website offers all of the support that you’ll need as you learn how to build your own apps. The App Inventor software, or “service” is at You can get there by clicking the orange “Create” button from any page on this website.

1. Setup Instructions: How to set up your phone for live testing (or, if you don’t have a phone, how to start the emulator).

2. Designer and Blocks Editor Overview: Gives a tour of the App Inventor environment.

3. Beginner Tutorials: Highly recommended as the best way to get started programming in App Inventor.

4. Packaging and Sharing Apps: After you have built an app, you can package it for your phone and you can share it with friends. What’s different in the new version of App Inventor? Find out what’s new App Inventor 2.

Source: Getting Started with MIT App Inventor 2 | Explore MIT App Inventor

As Tech Booms, Workers Turn to Coding for Career Change – The New York Times

In college, she had dismissed computer programming as all math and numbers, and not a creative pursuit. But she dropped into an open house one evening at the Galvanize school in Denver. She found it filled with creative, smart people — and not at all just dry math.

A unicorn mask at Galvanize, a coding school in San Francisco. Credit Max Whittaker for The New York Times

Ms. Worth, 22, signed up for the Galvanize 24-week web programming class and excelled. Shortly after completing the course, she was hired by IBM as a software developer in San Francisco. She helps IBM’s corporate clients design and build web and mobile applications that run in remote cloud data centers, and she earns a six-figure salary.

via As Tech Booms, Workers Turn to Coding for Career Change – The New York Times.